However, there is a wide range of indirect suicidal behaviors in which death results gradually rather than immediately, and in which the degree of intentionality is less obvious than in an overt suicide attempt. Defining Indirect Suicidal Behavior Robert Kastenbaum and Brian Mishara, in their discussion of the concept of premature death and its relationship to self-injurious behavior, suggested that behaviors that shorten life are varied in form and widespread.
Rochester Institute of Technology The purpose of this paper is to expand upon the finding that depression and suicide are becoming more and more likely to occur among older adults.
The theory behind this finding that older adults are becoming more and more depressed and committing suicide at a greater rate than ever before is due to their failing physical and mental health. The purpose of this paper is to expand upon and prove this theory by gathering statistics about suicide in older adults, examining studies conducted about depression and suicide, conducting a review of suicide notes from older adults, and by discussing reasons for depression and suicide among older adults.
Depression and suicide are two causes of death that are increasing in prevalence for all age groups. They are also on the rise in a specific age group, that of older adults. The purpose of this paper is to expand upon and prove this theory by gathering statistics about suicide in older adults, and by obtaining the information of scholarly sources by summarizing their views as it relates to the above mentioned theory.
This is because older adults who attempt suicide die from the attempt more often than any other age group. Studies of Depression and Suicide in Older Adults Depression in Older A discussion on assisted suicide A study was conducted examining the relationships between disease severity, functional impairment, and depression among a sample of older adults with age-related macular degeneration.
It appears that when faced with vision loss, depressed persons tend to generalize their disability to activities that are not necessarily vision dependent.
They seem to adopt the attitude of not being able to see leads to not being able to do. Suicide in Older Adults A study about older adult suicide was conducted by Zweig and Hinrichsen This study included community-dwelling adults, age 60 and over, who were admitted to a psychiatric inpatient service.
Each member met the criteria for major depressive disorder.
|Reasons for Depression and Suicide in Older Adults||Mental Health Dx 11 Comments A recent large-sample analysis investigated the association between several named chronic pain conditions and suicide.|
|Debate: Assisted suicide - Debatepedia, Debate on Euthanasia||Pharmacists were twice as likely as medical GPs to endorse the view that "if a patient has decided to end their own life then doctors should be allowed in law to assist".|
|INDIRECT SUICIDE||Decide whether to report on a suicide death Ensure the death has been confirmed as a suicide by official sources so that the report does not fuel speculation or interfere with ongoing investigations Where possible, obtain informed consent from appropriate relatives or close friends before identifying the person who has died. Assess whether the story is clearly in the public interest.|
The patients and family members were interviewed six and twelve months after the patients were admitted to the hospital. The study then went on to explore the differences between those who attempted suicide and those who did not.
They were also less likely to experience remission, and were more likely to relapse if they did experience remission. The study also found that interpersonal factors were associated with suicidal behavior in the patients. A study was done examining the phenomenon of suicide notes in older people who died unexpectedly and in whom a suicide verdict was returned by the Coroner over a period of 10 years.
Data was collected from the files of a Coroner's office in a particular town. All of the data was from deceased people aged 60 and above whose deaths were ruled as suicides. Deceased older adults who left suicide notes were compared to those who did not over a period of ten years. During the year review period, older people died as a result of suicide.
For note-leavers, the average age was 71, and for those who did not leave notes, the average age was Older suicide note-leavers were less likely to be known to psychiatric services, did not have recent psychiatric treatment, and were less likely to have used violent methods, and did not previously attempt suicide.
Suicide notes accompanied most of the cases of suicide that resulted from an overdose, using plastic bags, electrocution, or using car exhausts.
Most cases of drowning did not leave suicide notes, none of the men who killed themselves by drowning or falling from a height left suicide notes, nor did the deceased who fatally wounded themselves or jumped in front of a train. Also, older people who killed themselves at weekends were less likely to leave a suicide note.
This study found that many older people may be isolated and have no one to communicate with, while others may no longer have the ability to express themselves. Several other common correlates have been associated with older adult depression, such as cognitive dysfunction, genetic factors, interpersonal relations, and stressful life events.
Depression can also be brought on by anxiety in older adults. Another reason that older people commit suicide is due to unbearable psychological pain, which produces a heightened state of perturbation.
The person wants primarily to flee from pain, such as feeling boxed in, rejected, and especially hopeless and helpless Leenaars, The suicide is functional because it provides relief from the intolerable suffering. Inability to adjust is yet another reason for older adult suicide.
This includes several disorders such as depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenic disorders, brain-dysfunction disorders, and substance-related disorders.
Another reasoning of older adult suicide, rejection-aggression, was first documented by Stekel in the famous meeting of the Psychoanalytic Society in Freud's home in Vienna Leenaars, The idea behind this reason is that often times a rejection leads to pain and self-directed aggression.
Alcohol use also appears to be a major precipitating factor in geriatric suicide. Identification-aggression, an idea hypothesized by Freud, is another factor in older adult suicide.
With this idea, Freud believed that intense identification attachment with a lost or rejecting person is crucial in understanding the suicidal person. If this emotional attachment is not met, the suicidal person experiences a deep pain discomfort and wants to egress or escape Leenaars, Interpersonal relations are often a factor in older adult suicide.
If older adults have trouble establishing or maintaining relationships, they develop a disturbed, unbearable interpersonal calamity. Cognitive constriction is also a factor in older adult suicide.
The common cognitive state in suicide is mental constriction, such as rigidity in thinking, narrowing of focus, tunnel vision, and concreteness Leenaars, The Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations (commonly called the Unitarian Universalist Association or UUA) is a liberal religious organization, serving the Unitarian Universalist (UU) congregations in the U.S.: The Canadian Unitarian Council links together Unitarian congregations in Canada.: The General Assembly of Unitarian & Free Christian Churches links Unitarians in the UK.
For California’s assisted-suicide movement, Brittany Maynard was perfect: young, attractive, articulate, dying of a brain tumor—and very much on their side.
Marcia Angell, a former editor of the New England Journal of Medicine, . The best safeguard is to keep the present law. Evidence from Oregon and Washington, which allow doctor-assisted suicide, shows that many of those who ended their own lives in those States felt a burden on family, friends, or caregivers.
Before the debate began, 65% of the audience voted for legalizing physician-assisted suicide—a number similar to the one cited in a Gallup poll that showed 70% of Americans were in favor of allowing physician-assisted suicide.
Only 10% of the audience were against the measure at the beginning. Click image for short video clip Two Misleading Myths Regarding “Medical Aid in Dying” () Physician-assisted Suicide Isn't Right For Doctors.
Endnotes: (1) Although “euthanasia” and “assisted suicide” are often used interchangeably, they are not the same. One way to distinguish them is to look at the last act – .