Introduction I am honored and privileged to be here with you today. First of all, I would like to give thanks to God who has led my way from the opposite side of the globe to participate here in this International Military Ethics Symposium in which brothers and sisters united in Jesus Christ gather together to discuss ways to give glory to our Lord. Also I would like to thank those of you who have invited me to this symposium and I would like to congratulate the Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy on its 50th anniversary from the bottom of my heart.
The doom-mongers fear that Artificial Intelligence will prevail over people, will decide for them, steal their jobs, discriminate against them, violate their privacy, and will secretly control them by conditioning their lives.
The enthusiasts, on the other hand, dream of a world where machines are capable of autonomously performing bureaucratic processes, of being used as powerful computational tools to process and interpret large amounts of data in the best way, replacing men in the most burdensome and repetitive tasks, and creating solutions able to diminish crime and eradicate diseases.
Basically there are two perceptions of technology, of diametrically opposite sign. That of the enthusiasts, on the other hand, considers the use of AI to be extremely positive, believes that the implementation of these technologies can significantly improve not only the activity of the PA but also the quality of life of citizens and that a total and unconditional process of research and development is therefore necessary in this area .
The examples mentioned above are not chosen by chance, but are the result of the debate that in recent years has been going on in the scientific community and in civil society regarding the impact of AI systems Ethics jointforces paper draft 1 our lives.
The ethical challenge of the introduction of Artificial Intelligence solutions is represented by the need to respond in a balanced manner to the polarisation of these two visions, integrating innovation and taking into account the effects that this has already had and will continue to have in the development of society, respecting and safeguarding the universally recognised core values.
The use of AI based on algorithms of data analysis in decision-making processes related to social, health and judicial issues such as risk assessment therefore requires a thorough reflection in terms of ethics and, more broadly, of governance.
The algorithms for data analysis involve high costs that encompass the entire evolutionary cycle of their functioning: Speaking of greater efficiency or tax cuts thanks to the use of AI technologies in public services can be a misleading narrative register as a correct development of such tools implies high costs and great attention to the ethical aspects related to their use.
The focus on the functional development of this technology requires the economic and professional resources suitable for ethical development and above all in line with the data it processes and the decisions it guides. Otherwise, what will come out of the analysis will only help finance the private sector, with the illusion of helping people.
Or, worse, to introducing a distortion or a flight of responsibility, from time to time referring the cause of decisional errors to the algorithms instead of the decision makers. Capitalizing on the benefits of technology requires important investment on the part of the PA and a significant commitment to improve the quality and efficiency of services and to have systems that are secure and able to truly reduce inequalities.
To understand its extent, it is possible to analyse those that represent the central elements in the public debate and in scientific analysis: This also includes errors or bias introduced, even inadvertently, by the designers, replicating them in all future applications.
For example, datasets with bias they propagate the same evaluation errors in the meaning of an image or a concept, as happened, for example, with certain algorithms used to prevent crimes, in which the data was compromised by a historical series that emphasised ethnic differences .
Or unbalanced datasets, that overestimate or underestimate the weight of certain variables in the reconstruction of the cause-effect relationship necessary to explain certain events and, above all, to predict them; responsibility accountability and liability : Both when it acts as an assistant to human beings as well as as an autonomous entity, AI generates effects on the lives of people in relation to which it is necessary to be able to establish legal liability.
Nevertheless, the ownership of the latter is not clearly identifiable, since it could be attributed to the producer  or to the owner  of the Artificial Intelligence, or even to its end user .
Those who design AI systems can be responsible for design or implementation defects, but not for behaviour caused by inadequate instruction datasets. Can a public decision-maker be considered politically responsible for the decisions made on the basis of algorithms that process data affected by the bias mentioned above?
What type of responsibility can there be for Public Administration? If a robot hurts someone, who should be held responsible and who, if anyone, has the obligation to compensate the victim and with which assets?
Can the public decision-maker transfer his political responsibility to an AI system that does not respond to a clear principle of representation? Is it ethically sustainable that, in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of measures, certain important choices can be made with the influence of an AI or even completely delegating them to the AI?
And in trusting an AI system, how can its consistency be controlled over time? These are just some of the issues that emerge in this area and highlight the need to establish principles for the use of AI technologies in a public context.
The functioning of the latter must meet criteria of transparency and openness. Transparency becomes a fundamental prerequisite to avoid discrimination and solve the problem of information asymmetry, guaranteeing citizens the right to understand public decisions.
It is also necessary to think about the policies chosen to determine the reference indices benchmark policies to avoid effects of a larger dimension: This requirement, strictly connected to the legal context, has some ethical peculiarities concerning the use that PA can make of the data that has come to its knowledge in contexts different from those in which it was collected.
Is it ethically sustainable that PA, through the use of data collected for other purposes, takes action based on the new derived information? Is it ethical to use this data to feed predictive systems?
To address these challenges, it may be helpful to follow some general principles. Among these we can mention the need for an anthropocentric  approach, according to which Artificial Intelligence must always be put at the service of people and not vice versa .
Moreover, there are principles of procedural non-arbitrary proceduresformal equal treatment for equal individuals or groups and substantial effective removal of economic and social obstacles equity, as well as the satisfaction of certain basic universal needs, including respect for the freedom and rights of individuals and the community .
These and many other aspects related to the need to place AI at the service of people in every context are analysed in subsequent challenges.writing the ethics term paper For earlier drafts of your Term Paper, use the means of writing you are most comfortable with -- pencil, tape recorder, word processor, etc.
View Essay - Ethics paper - Rough Draft from PSY at University of Nairobi.
Running head: ROUGH DRAFT 1 Ethics paper: Rough Draft Name Institution Instructor Course Date ROUGH DRAFT 2 Ethics Find Study Resources. Force as a warfighting organization is the only one designed to exploit the advantages of air and space while fighting the nation’s wars.
For the Air Force to carry out its assigned mission, every member must understand and embody the central warfighting beliefs, leadership principles, and core values of the Air Force. In addition to Rule , the general conflicts rule, and Rule , the former client conflicts rule, the lawyer must consider Rule when the proposed representation involves representation of .
Medical Assistance in Dying in Canada - Ethics Resources. In April , the JCB commissioned a task force on medical assistance in dying (MAID, previously referred to as physician-assisted death) to anticipate and respond to ethical issues related to the implementation of MAID in Canada.
A core commitment of the JCB Task Force was to develop ethically sound and evidence-informed guidance . The Social and Ethics Committee Handbook, Ethics Institute of South Africa As demonstrated, although a number of international and regional commitments exist aimed at combatting corruption, corporate ethics and responsible business conduct, few deal with the company-.