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Load optimization in prime power applications Removal of carbon build-up on generator piston rings Data center tests electricity and air-conditioning Load bank types[ edit ] The three most common types of load banks are resistive, inductive, and capacitive.
Both inductive and capacitive loads create what is known as reactance in an AC circuit. Reactance is a circuit element's opposition to an alternating currentcaused by the buildup of electric or magnetic fields in the element due to the current and is the "imaginary" component of impedance, or the resistance to AC signals at a certain frequency.
The unit of reactance is the ohm. Inductive reactance resists the change to current, causing the circuit current to lag voltage.
Capacitive reactance resists the change to voltage, causing the circuit current to lead voltage. Resistive load bank[ edit ] A resistive load bank, the most common type, provides equivalent loading for both generators and prime movers.
That is, for each kilowatt or horsepower of load applied to the generator by the load bank, an equal amount of load is applied to the prime mover by the generator.
A resistive load bank, therefore, removes energy from the complete system: Additional energy is removed as a consequence of resistive load bank operation: A resistive load bank impacts upon all aspects of a generating system. The load of a resistive load bank is created by the conversion of electrical energy to heat via high-power resistors such as grid resistors.
This heat must be dissipated from the load bank, either by air or by water, by forced means or convection. In a testing system, a resistive load simulates real-life resistive loads, such as incandescent lighting and heating loads as well as the resistive or unity power factor component of magnetic motors, transformers loads.
The most common type uses wire resistance, usually with fan cooling, and this type is often portable and moved from generator to generator for test purposes.
Sometimes a load of this type is built into a building, but this is unusual. It can be readily improvised, which makes it useful in remote locations. For testing automotive batteriesa carbon pile load bank allows an adjustable load to be placed on the battery or charging system, allowing accurate simulation of the heavy load on the battery during cranking of the engine.
Such devices are usually portable and may include metering to show voltage and current. An inductive load consists of an iron-core reactive element which, when used in conjunction with a resistive load bank, creates a lagging power factor load.
Other ratios are possible to obtain other power factor ratings. An inductive load is used to simulate a real-life mixed commercial loads consisting of lighting, heating, motors, transformers, etc.
With a resistive-inductive load bank, full power system testing is possible, because the provided impedance supplies currents out of phase with voltage and allows for performance evaluation of generators, voltage regulators, load tap changers, conductors, switchgear and other equipment.
Capacitive load bank[ edit ] A capacitive load bank or capacitor bank is similar to an inductive load bank in rating and purpose, except leading power factor loads are created, so reactive power is supplied from these loads to the system, hence improves the power factor. These loads simulate certain electronic or non-linear loads typical of telecommunications, computer or UPS industries.
Combined load banks incorporate resistors and inductors all in a single construction which can be independently switched to allow resistive only, inductive only, or varying lagging power factor testing.
Combined load banks are rated in kilovolt-amperes kVA.rutadeltambor.com is the Federal Government's premier electronic source for the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). It contains Product Service Codes (PSC), the Federal Service Contract Inventory, FAR Archives, eBook versions of the FAR, optimized search engine for the FAR and other resources to improve Acquisition for contracting professionals.
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