Learn how to collect your data and analyze it, figuring out what it means, so that you can use it to draw some conclusions about your work. What do we mean by collecting data?
Scientific research involves a systematic process that focuses on being objective and gathering a multitude of information for analysis so that the researcher can come to a conclusion. This process is used in all research and evaluation projects, regardless of the research method scientific method of inquiry, evaluation research, or action research.
The process focuses on testing hunches or ideas in a park and recreation setting through a systematic process. In this process, the study is documented in such a way that another individual can conduct the same study again. This is referred to as replicating the study. Any research done without documenting the study so that others can review the process and results is not an investigation using the scientific research process.
The scientific research process is a multiple-step process where the steps are interlinked with the other steps in the process. If changes are made in one step of the process, the researcher must review all the other steps to ensure that the changes are reflected throughout the process.
Parks and recreation professionals are often involved in conducting research or evaluation projects within the agency. These professionals need to understand the eight steps of the research process as they apply to conducting a study.
Identify the Problem The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research problem may be something the agency identifies as a problem, some knowledge or information that is needed by the agency, or the desire to identify a recreation trend nationally.
In the example in table 2. This serves as the focus of the study. Review the Literature Now that the problem has been identified, the researcher must learn more about the topic under investigation.
To do this, the researcher must review the literature related to the research problem. This step provides foundational knowledge about the problem area.
The review of literature also educates the researcher about what studies have been conducted in the past, how these studies were conducted, and the conclusions in the problem area.
In the obesity study, the review of literature enables the programmer to discover horrifying statistics related to the long-term effects of childhood obesity in terms of health issues, death rates, and projected medical costs. In addition, the programmer finds several articles and information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that describe the benefits of walking 10, steps a day.
The information discovered during this step helps the programmer fully understand the magnitude of the problem, recognize the future consequences of obesity, and identify a strategy to combat obesity i. Clarify the Problem Many times the initial problem identified in the first step of the process is too large or broad in scope.
In step 3 of the process, the researcher clarifies the problem and narrows the scope of the study. This can only be done after the literature has been reviewed. The knowledge gained through the review of literature guides the researcher in clarifying and narrowing the research project.
In the example, the programmer has identified childhood obesity as the problem and the purpose of the study. This topic is very broad and could be studied based on genetics, family environment, diet, exercise, self-confidence, leisure activities, or health issues.
All of these areas cannot be investigated in a single study; therefore, the problem and purpose of the study must be more clearly defined. This purpose is more narrowly focused and researchable than the original problem.
Clearly Define Terms and Concepts Terms and concepts are words or phrases used in the purpose statement of the study or the description of the study.
These items need to be specifically defined as they apply to the study. Terms or concepts often have different definitions depending on who is reading the study.Marketing Research. Managers need information in order to introduce products and services that create value in the mind of the customer.
But the perception of value is a subjective one, and what customers value this year may be quite different from what they value next year. The scientific method is the process by which science is carried out. As in other areas of inquiry, science (through the scientific method) can build on previous knowledge and develop a more sophisticated understanding of its topics of study over time.
The component of specifying questions in the process of formulating a research problem aims at transforming the originating questions into a series of observations in a particular concrete situation, necessitating collection of empirical data, so as to seek possible answers to the originating questions in terms that satisfy the rationale fruitfully.
Research as it was defined by Leedy and Ormond () it is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information to increase our understanding of the phenomenon under study.
Mar 20, · This page last updated on March 20, Content Manager: [email protected] Technical Issues: E-mail OER Webmaster. The component of specifying questions in the process of formulating a research problem aims at transforming the originating questions into a series of observations in a particular concrete situation, necessitating collection of empirical data, so as to seek possible answers to the originating questions in terms that satisfy the rationale fruitfully.