Resources This is a compulsory theory so everyone learns it and the Examiner will expect you to know it in detail. Tajfel caption right was a Polish Jew whose family were killed in Nazi death camps. He settled in Britain but devoted himself to researching prejudice and discrimination.
Types[ edit ] Social influence is a broad term that relates to many different phenomena. Listed below are some major types of social influence that are being researched in the field of social psychology.
For more information, follow the main article links provided. Kelman's varieties[ edit ] There are three processes of attitude change as defined by Harvard psychologist Herbert Kelman in a paper published in the Journal of Conflict Resolution.
Compliance psychology Compliance is the act of responding favorably to an explicit or implicit request offered by others. Technically, compliance is a change in behavior but not necessarily in attitude; one can comply due to mere obedience or by otherwise opting to withhold private thoughts due to social pressures.
Identification psychology Identification is the changing of attitudes or behaviors due to the influence of someone who is admired. Advertisements that rely upon celebrity endorsements to market their products are taking advantage of this phenomenon.
According to Kelman, the desired relationship that the identifier relates to the behavior or attitude change.
Internalization Internalization is the process of acceptance of a set of norms established by people or groups that are influential to the individual. The individual accepts the influence because the content of the influence accepted is intrinsically rewarding.
It is congruent with the individual's value system, and according to Kelman the "reward" of internalization is "the content of the new behavior". Conformity Conformity is a type of social influence involving a change in behavior, belief, or thinking to align with those of others or with normative standards.
It is the most common and pervasive form of social influence. Social psychology research in conformity tends to distinguish between two varieties: Conformity from peer pressure generally results from identification with the group members or from compliance of some members to appease others.
Conformity can be in appearance, or may be more complete in nature; impacting an individual both publicly and privately. Compliance also referred to as acquiescence demonstrates a public conformity to a group majority or norm, while the individual continues to privately disagree or dissent, holding on to their original beliefs or to an alternative set of beliefs differing from the majority.
Compliance appears as conformity, but there is a division between the public and the private self. Conversion includes the private acceptance that is absent in compliance.
The individual's original behaviour, beliefs, or thinking changes to align with that of others the influencersboth publicly and privately.
The individual has accepted the behavior, belief, or thinking, and has internalized it, making it his own. Conversion may also refer to individual members of a group changing from their initial and varied opinions to adopt the opinions of others, which may differ from their original opinions.
The resulting group position may be a hybrid of various aspects of individual initial opinions, or it may be an alternative independent of the initial positions reached through consensus. What appears to be conformity may in fact be congruence. Congruence occurs when an individual's behavior, belief, or thinking is already aligned with that of the others, and no change occurs.
In situations where conformity including compliance, conversion, and congruence is absent, there are non-conformity processes such as independence and anti-conformity. Independence, also referred to as dissent, involves an individual either through their actions or lack of action, or through the public expression of their beliefs or thinking being aligned with their personal standards but inconsistent with those of other members of the group either all of the group or a majority.
Anti-conformity, also referred to as counter-conformity, may appear as independence, but it lacks alignment with personal standards and is for the purpose of challenging the group.
Actions as well as stated opinions and beliefs are often diametrically opposed to that of the group norm or majority.It is argued that (a) social identification is a perception of oneness with a group of persons; (b) social identification stems from the categorization of individuals, the distinctiveness and prestige of the group, the salience of outgroups, and the factors that traditionally are associated with group formation; and (c) social identification leads to .
Third, the theoretical underpinnings of social identity and its explication as found in social identity theory are outlined. Included in this discussion is the complementary theory of social categorisation, which was developed to elaborate the cognitive process of forming a social identity.
Social Identity Theory and its Impact on People’s Reactions to Petrol Queue Jumping. Words | 8 Pages Abstract This study aimed to investigate whether the social identity theory applies when it comes to peoples’ reactions to petrol queue jumping. Social identity theory is built on three key cognitive components: social categorization, social identification, and social comparison.
Generally, individuals wish to maintain a positive social identity by maintaining their group’s favorable social standing over that of relevant out-groups.
Social identity is the part of the self that is defined by one’s group memberships. Social identity theory, which was formulated by social psychologist Henri Tajfel and John Turner in the s, describes the conditions under which social identity becomes more important than one’s identity as an.
The Social Identity Theory (SIT, Tajfel, ; Tajfel & Turner, ) differs from role-based theories, focusing less on the individual within a social context, but rather on the group as a whole.