By kneeling, we stand up for others Posted by gcgeorgetonian on 12 Oct Perhaps it is best when we take a knee and reflect on what it is that we actually stand for. Sometimes it is best to remain seated until you have a real reason to rise up.
History of the Concept of Race The dominant scholarly position is that the concept of race is a modern phenomenon, at least in Europe and the Americas.
However, there is less agreement regarding whether racism, even absent a developed race concept, may have existed in the ancient Greek and Roman worlds. The influential work of classicist Frank Snowden ;who emphasized the lack of anti-black prejudice in the ancient world, led many scholars of race to conclude that racism did not exist in that epoch.
However, later classicists have responded that Snowden's work unnecessarily reduced all forms of racism to its peculiarly American version based on skin color and others markers of non-white identity. Thus, Benjamin Isaac and Denise McCoskey contend that the ancient Greeks and Romans did hold proto-racist views that applied to other groups which today might be considered white.
Isaac persuasively argues that these views must be considered proto-racist: More importantly, both Isaac and McCoskey contend that ancient proto-racism influenced the development of modern racism. Perhaps the first, unconscious stirrings of the concept of race arose within the Iberian peninsula.
Following the Moorish conquest of Andalusia in the eighth century C. During and after their reconquista reconquest of the Muslim principalities in the peninsula, the Catholic Monarchs Isabel and Ferdinand sought to establish a uniformly Christian state by expelling first the Jews in and then the Muslims in But because large numbers of both groups converted to Christianity to avoid expulsion and before this to avoid persecutionthe monarchs distrusted the authenticity of these Jewish and Muslim conversos converts.
Only those who could demonstrate their ancestry to those Christians who resisted the Moorish invasion were secure in their status in the realm.
Thus was born the idea of purity of blood limpieza de sangrenot fully the biological concept of race but perhaps the first occidental use of blood heritage as a category of religio-political membership Bernasconi and Lottvii; Hannaford—; Frederickson31— The Iberian peninsula may also have witnessed the first stirrings of anti-black and anti-Native-American racism.
Since this region was the The problem of racial profiling in modern united states in Europe to utilize African slavery while gradually rejecting the enslavement of fellow European Christians, Iberian Christians may have come to associate blacks as physically and mentally suitable only for menial labor.
In this they were influenced by Arab slave merchants, who assigned the worst tasks to their dark skinned slaves while assigning more complex labor to light or tawny-skinned slaves Frederickson Indeed, arguably it was the conflict between the Enlightenment ideals of universal freedom and equality versus the fact of the European enslavement of Africans and indigenous Americans that fostered the development of the idea of race Blum—; Hannaford— While events in the Iberian peninsula may have provided the initial stirrings of modern racial sentiments, the concept of race, with its close links to ideas of deterministic biology, emerged with the rise of modern natural philosophy and its concern with taxonomy Smith First were the peoples inhabiting most of Europe and North Africa, extending eastward through Persia, northern and central India, and right up to parts of contemporary Indonesia.
Despite their differing skin tones, these peoples nevertheless shared common physical characteristics, such as hair texture and bone structure. The second race was constituted by the people of Africa south of the Sahara desert, who notably possessed smooth black skin, thick noses and lips, thin beards, and wooly hair.
Bernier considered whether the indigenous peoples of the Americas were a fifth race, but he ultimately assigned them to the first Bernasconi and Lott2—3. Central to a scientific concept of race would be a resolution of the question of monogenesis versus polygenesis.
Monogenesis adhered to the Biblical creation story in asserting that all humans descended from a common ancestor, perhaps Adam of the Book of Genesis; polygenesis, on the other had, asserted that different human races descended from different ancestral roots.
Thus, the former position contended that all races are nevertheless members of a common human species, whereas the latter saw races as distinct species. Amidst this argument against crude naturalism, Hume inserts a footnote in the edition, wherein he writes: Richard Popkin and Naomi Zack13—18 contend that the version of the essay assumes, without demonstration, an original, polygenetic difference between white and non-white races.
Andrew Vallsdenies that either version of the footnote espouses polygenesis. This, combined with patterns of migration, geographic isolation, and in-breeding, led to the differentiation of four distinct, pure races: Once these discrete racial groups were developed over many generations, further climatic changes will not alter racial phenotypes Bernasconi and Lott8— As evidence, he adduced the fact that individuals from different races were able to breed together, and their offspring tended to exhibit blended physical traits inherited from both parents.
Not only did blending indicate that the parents were part of a common species; it also indicated that they are of distinct races. For the physical traits of parents of the same race are not blended but often passed on exclusively: Such inter-racial mixtures accounted for the existence of liminal individuals, whose physical traits seem to lie between the discrete boundaries of one of the four races; peoples who do not fit neatly into one or another race are explained away as groups whose seeds have not been fully triggered by the appropriate environmental stimuli Bernasconi and Lott This term reflected his claim that this variety originated in the Caucuses mountains, in Georgia, justifying this etiology through reference to the superior beauty of the Georgians.
The version also included the terms Mongolian to describe the non-Caucasian peoples of Asia, Ethiopian to signify black Africans, American to denote the indigenous peoples of the New World, and Malay to identify the South Pacific Islanders Bernasconi and Lott27—33; Hannaford While noting differences in skin tone, he based his varieties upon the structures of the cranium, which supposedly gave his distinctions a stronger scientific foundation than the more superficial characteristic of color Hannaford In addition, he strongly denied polygenetic accounts of racial difference, noting the ability of members of different varieties to breed with each other, something that humans were incapable of doing with other species.
Indeed, he took great pains to dismiss as spurious accounts of Africans mating with apes or of monstrous creatures formed through the union of humans with other animals Hannaford—9.
Agassiz was born in Switzerland, received an M. His orthodox Christian background initially imbued him with a strong monogenist commitment, but upon visiting America and seeing an African American for the first time, Agassiz experienced a type of conversion experience, which led him to question whether these remarkably different people could share the same blood as Europeans.
Eventually staying on and making his career in America, and continually struck by the physical character of African Americans, Agassiz officially announced his turn to polygenesis at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science AAAS in Charleston, South Carolina.
Although the Catholic Gobineau initially espoused monogenesis, he later leaned towards polygenesis and ended up ambivalent on this issue Hannaford— Nevertheless, Gobineau lent credence to the white racial supremacy that Nott supported Brace— Gobineau posited two impulses among humans, that of attraction and repulsion.We clearly have a problem in America.
When almost 90 percent of white people in America who take the Implicit Association Test show an inherent racial bias for white people versus black people. In the United States, an earlier era's racism was built into the structure of various economic, social, and political institutions.
That means even race-neutral operations today produce imbalanced outcomes.
This solution is comprised of an explanation of how conflict theory can inform racial profiling in America. It is supplemented by one reference.
|The New Jim Crow - Wikipedia||Writer, storyteller at Earthjustice, an environmental law organization.|
Award-winning news and culture, features breaking news, in-depth reporting and criticism on politics, business, entertainment and technology. At least 30 states could soon require their state police to collect racial data on all traffic stops and searches, with the stated end of eliminating "racial profiling." Urban forces are under identical pressure.
A brief history of racism in the United States Samana Siddiqui Racism is the belief that one’s race, skin color, or more generally, one’s group, be it of religious, national or ethnic identity, is .